Welcome to Bio Bloom

Bio Bloom is Uganda’s leading distributor of Biological pest control in Uganda. Working with Milkweed Laboratories, we design Integrated Pest Management (IPM) solutions for Uganda’s commercial farmers. We design solutions for a wide range of agricultural and home based solutions including for; Vegetable, Banana, Fruits, Flowers, Cereals, Animals and Poultry. Our solutions are zero-residue, environmentally friendly, and economically smart.

Milkweed Biologicals is a Ugandan company, started with the intention to reduce chemical pesticide use by Uganda’s farmers.

We support our farmers through free lab diagnostics for informed support to the individual farmers’ problems. At Bio Bloom, we believe that successful pest control is about supporting the farmers to get the most out of their effort and not only using the products. That is why we focus on the farmers’ needs and work with them to ensure the best possible mix of crop management techniques, physical interventions and biological control.
The farmer smiles, we smile.

Core values

Care
RELIABILITY
HONESTY
COMMITMENT
EFFICIENCY
Mission
MissionTo be uganda's leading distributor of safe quality and effective biological pesticide and fumigation solutions.
VISION
VISIONA uganda where farmers produce cleaner, safer and healthier agricultural products at reduced cost while protecting the environment.

Meet our team

Products

Beneficial Fungi

Contains spores of Trichoderma koningiopsis, an antagonistic fungus for control of soil borne fungal diseases
Bio control agent: Trichoderma koningiopsis
Category: Beneficial Fungi
Target: Kills fungal pathogens such as Fusarium in the root biom, and Alternaria in the foliar. Out competes bacterial pathogens and also increases yield in the plant, and increases immune response of the plant.
Crop: Cereals, Flowers, Fruits, Tea, Vegetables, Bananas, Maize

Mode of Action
Trichoderma koningiopsis has been found effective in plant disease management due to unique properties that include:
Competition: Its fast growth and establishment around the root zone promotes exclusion of harmful microbes thus providing a barrier to combat disease-causing fungi. The fungus produces gas, which inhibits stages of the development of pathogenic fungi.
Growth promotion: Through establishment around the root zone, Trichoderma stimulates plant growth by aiding nutritional up-take resulting in plant growth and vigor.
Antibiosis: Trichoderma is known to produce antibiotic metabolites when grown in liquid culture. Inhibition of pathogenic fungi through antibiosis has been demonstrated.
Mycoparasitism: Trichoderma has the ability to parasitize the hyphae and sclerotia of soil pathogens, invading the cells and limiting their progression.

Application
Foundation+® application recommendations vary depending on method of application and target crop. Owing to its mode of action, the product should be applied preventatively before disease onset in the plants.
1. Drip application
Apply the solution through the fertigation drip system using adequate water volume. Agitation of the mixture should continue throughout the application period to ensure uniform distribution of the Foundation+®.
2. Drench application
Pour into a watering can or sprayer / applicator and apply evenly onto the target area. Irrigate the area treated with Foundation+® after application.
3. Dip application
This is recommended as a pre-transplant application for rooted plantlets or cuttings. Put them standing into perforated plastic crates and dip-to-soak soil plugs and /or roots into a solution of the product.
4. Seed Coating
This is important to start off seeds. Pour seeds, a little water (Ensure that the water is dripping), some cooking oil and the product into a mixing bucket or container.

Rates
As directed by the Customer Care Officer

Contains organic fungal spores based on beauveria bassiana for use against crawling and sucking insects.
Bio control agent: Beauveria Bassiana
Category: Beneficial Fungi
Target challenge: Bedbugs, cockroaches, termites, white ants…
Crop: Cereals, Coffee, Flowers, Fruits, Tea, Vegetables,

Mode of Action
Fungus parasitizes and subsequently kills eggs, juveniles, and adult females of various plant parasitic nematodes. Death occurs in 3-5 days depending on the size of the insect and other conditions such as insect age, size and species, humidity and temperature. Insect becomes a vector and infects other insects while it lives, and after death, continues to release spores to infect other insects. This fungi doesn’t kill predatory mites as they are not insects.
Relative humidity of above 70% and temperatures of between 18 – 30°C are essential for fungi development and growth. Infection will occur within 24 to 48 hours. For best results, application should be before pest infestations become heavy.

Application
Mix the required amount of MaxKillx5® with water using 1 litres for every 125g product; stir well to form a uniform mixture. Add the mixture to the required volume of water in the spray tank and mix well. Add an appropriate water at recommended rates and mix thoroughly. After mixing with water the product should be drenched/Band applied as soon as possible and washed in with more volumes of water; DO NOT store overnight.

Rates
Frequency of application varies with the pest pressure and the crop. Generally it is recommended to apply, 14 days just before planting followed by a second application 4 – 6 weeks after planting and a repeat every four weeks.
It is recommended to apply MaxKillx5® at 125g per hectare in 1000 Litres of water followed by a further 1000 – 1500 Litres of water only to ensure the conidia are washed down to the root zone.

Application
Prevention
125g/ha, Monthly, as needed.
Low Infestation
125g/ha, 14 days apart, 4 application then revert to maintenance regime.
Medium Infestation
125g/ha, 14 days apart, 4 application then revert to 125g 14 days apart.
High Infestation
Augment with another product with knock down effect then 250g/ha, 14 days apart, 4 application then revert to 125g 14 days apart.
Maintenance
125/ha, Monthly indefinitely.
Storage
Store in a cool, dry place in a tightly closed original pack. Do not freeze. May be stored in original unopened container for six months at temperatures of 6 – 12°C.

Contains fungi useful in the control of insects such as cockroaches and, termites, aphids and mosquitoes.
Bio control agent: Isaria fumosoroseus
Category: Beneficial Fungi
Target challenge: Sucking insects such as cockroaches, termites, mosquitoes and aphids.
Crop: Cereals, Bananas, Coffee, Flowers, Fruits, Tea, Vegetables
Other Applications: Fumigation

Mode of Action
Fungus parasitizes and subsequently kills eggs, juveniles, and adult females of various plant parasitic nematodes. It infects the insect but doesn’t cause instant death. Death occurs in 3-5 days depending on the size of the insect and other conditions such humidity and temperature. Insect becomes a vector and infects other insects while it lives, and after death, continues to release spores to infect other insects.
Relative humidity of above 70% and temperatures of between 18 – 30°C are essential for fungi development and growth. Infection will occur within 24 to 48 hours. For best results, application should be before pest infestations become heavy.

Preparation and Application
Mix the 125gm of ENTOPHAGEX20® WP with 1000 litres of water. First mix the product in 1 litre of water and stir well to form a uniform mixture. Add the mixture to the 1000 liters of water in the spray tank and mix well. After mixing with water the product should be drenched/Band applied as soon as possible and washed in with more volumes of water; DO NOT store overnight.

Rates
Frequency of application varies with the pest pressure and the crop. Generally it is recommended to apply, 14 days just before planting followed by a second application 4 – 6 weeks after planting and a repeat every four weeks.
It is recommended to apply ENTOPHAGEX20® at 125g per hectare in 1000 Litres of water followed by a further 1000 – 1500 Litres of water only to ensure the conidia are washed down to the root zone.

Application
Prevention
125g/ha, Monthly, as needed.
Low Infestation
125g/ha, 14 days apart, 4 application then revert to maintenance regime.
Medium Infestation
125g/ha, 14 days apart, 4 application then revert to 125g 14 days apart.
High Infestation
Augment with another product with knock down effect then 250g/ha, 14 days apart, 4 application then revert to 125g 14 days apart.
Maintenance
125g/ha, Monthly indefinitely.
Storage
Store in a cool, dry place in a tightly closed original pack. Do not freeze and do not allow the product to undergo thermal shock. May be stored in original unopened container for six months at temperatures of 6 – 12°C.

Organic generalist insect fungi that targets and kills cockroaches, termites, aphids, and other sucking insects.

Bio control agent: Metarhizium anisopliae

Category: Beneficial Fungi

Target challenge: Bedbugs, cockroaches, termites, aphids, white ants.

Crop: Cereals, Coffee, Flowers, Fruits, Tea, Vegetables

Fumigation of Homes, hotels and lodges, hospitals, prisons, public transport, education institutes

Mode of Action

Fungus parasitizes and subsequently kills eggs, juveniles, and adult females of various plant parasitic nematodes. Death occurs in 3-5 days depending on the size of the insect and other conditions such as insect age, size and species, humidity and temperature. Insect becomes a vector and infects other insects while it lives, and after death, continues to release spores to infect other insects. This fungi doesn’t kill predatory mites as they are not insects.

Preparation and Application

Mix 125gm of the Entophage Super® for every 1000 litres of water. First mix the product in 1 litre of water and stir well to form a uniform mixture. Add the mixture to the 1000 litres of water in the spray tank and mix well. After mixing with water the product should be drenched/Band applied as soon as possible and washed in with more volumes of water; DO NOT store overnight.

Rates

Frequency of application varies with the pest pressure and the crop. Generally it is recommended to apply, 14 days just before planting followed by a second application 4 – 6 weeks after planting and a repeat every four weeks.

It is recommended to apply Entophage Super® at 125g per hectare in 1000 Litres of water followed by a further 1000 – 1500 Litres of water only to ensure the conidia are washed down to the root zone.

Application

Prevention

125g/ha, Monthly, as needed.

Low Infestation

125g/ha, 14 days apart, 4 application then revert to maintenance regime.

Medium Infestation

125g/ha, 14 days apart, 4 application then revert to 125g 14 days apart.

High Infestation

Augment with another product with knock down effect then 250g/ha, 14 days apart, 4 application then revert to 125g 14 days apart.

Maintenance

125/ha, Monthly indefinitely.

Storage

Store in a cool, dry place in a tightly closed original pack. Do not freeze. May be stored in original unopened container for six months at temperatures of 6 – 12°C.

A natural nematophagous fungus based on Purpureocillium lilacinus used for control of parasitic plant nematodes, and the young and eggs particularly of Moth and Butterfly.
Bio control agent: Purpureocillium lilacinus
Category: Beneficial Fungi
Target challenge: Enhanced root development, Plant Parasitic Nematodes (For use in controlling: eggs, juveniles and females of Meloidogyne spp: Radopholus similis, Heterodera spp; Globodera spp: Pratylenchus spp: Rotylenchus spp; and Nacobbus spp.)
Crop: Cereals, Coffee, Flowers, Fruits, Tea, Vegetables

Mode of Action
Fungus parasitizes and subsequently kills eggs, juveniles, and adult females of various plant parasitic nematodes.

Preparation and Application
Mix 125gm of NEMARID3X® for every 1000 litres of water. First mix the product in 1 litre of water and stir well to form a uniform mixture. Add the mixture to 1000 litres of water and mix well. After mixing with water the product should be drenched/Band applied as soon as possible and washed in with more volumes of water; DO NOT store overnight.

Rates
Frequency of application varies with the pest pressure and the crop. Generally it is recommended to apply, 14 days just before planting followed by a second application 4 – 6 weeks after planting and a repeat every four weeks.
It is recommended to apply NEMARID3X® at 125g per hectare in 1000 Litres of water followed by a further 1000 – 1500 Litres of water only to ensure the conidia are washed down to the root zone.

Application
Prevention
125g/ha, Monthly, as needed.
Low Infestation
125g/ha, 14 days apart, 4 application then revert to maintenance regime.
Medium Infestation
125g/ha, 14 days apart, 4 application then revert to 125g 14 days apart.
High Infestation
Augment with another product with knock down effect then 250g/ha, 14 days apart, 4 application then revert to 125g 14 days apart.
Maintenance
125/ha, Monthly indefinitely.
Storage
Store in a cool, dry place in a tightly closed original pack. Do not freeze and do not allow the product to undergo thermal shock. May be stored in original unopened container for six months at temperatures of 6 – 12°C.

About: A biological insecticide containing Lecanicillium lecanii, a naturally occurring fungus that is effective against Thrips, Aphids, Mealy Bugs, Scale insects, White Fly and other sucking insects.

Bio control agent: Lecanicillium lecanii

Category: Beneficial Fungi

Target challenge: Aphids, Leafminers, Mealybugs, Scale Insects, Thrips, Whiteflies

Crop: Coffee, Flowers, Fruits, Vegetables

Mode of Action

Spores germinate and penetrate the cuticle of the insect by enzymatic and mechanical actions eventually infecting the insect. Infected larvae and pupae die before the fungus is visible. Dead larvae and pupae of infected insects have a wrinkled non-shiny surface with a light to dark yellow color.

Relative humidity of above 70% and temperatures of between 18 – 30°C are essential for fungi development and growth. Infection will occur within 24 to 48 hours. For best results, application should be before pest infestations become heavy.

Application

Mix 125gm of FarmJoy Plus®  for every 1000 litres of water. First add 125g of the product in 1 litre of water and stir well to form a uniform mixture. Add the mixture to 1000 litres of water and mix well. The mixed product should be sprayed as soon as possible; DO NOT store overnight.  Ensure that all leaf surfaces where the insects abound are covered thoroughly well. Maintain a minimum Relative humidity of 70 % for at least 12 hours. Highest infection levels are achieved at temperatures of between 20 -28°C.

Frequency of Application

Curative spraying should be done at intervals of 5-7 days of between 2-4 applications. However this will vary with the pest pressure.

Rates

It is recommended to apply FarmJoy Plus®  at 125gm per hectare with a water volume of 1000 – 2000 Litres depending on crop canopy with the aim of having the fungal spores evenly distributed on the leaf surfaces.

Storage

Keep in dry and cool place in tightly closed original pack. Do not expose to direct sunlight or Heat. May be stored in original unopened container for six months at temperatures of 6 – 12°C

Compatibility

FarmJoy Plus®  is compatible with most Biopesticides and insecticides; (please refer to the Bio Bloom pesticide side-effects compatibility guide) since some chemicals may have detrimental effects to Lecanicillium lecanii since it is a living organism. Avoid chemical fungicide spray at least one day before and after using FarmJoy Plus®.

About: A blend of insecticidal fungi that targets Thrips, Aphids, Mealy Bugs White Fly and other sucking insects.

Bio control agent: cocktails of Strains X5, X23, X20, X9, X22

Category: Beneficial Fungi

Target: Aphids, Coffee Berry Borer, Leaf miners, Mealy bugs, Scale Insects, Thrips, Whiteflies

Crop: Coffee, Flowers, Fruits, Vegetables

Mode of Action

Fungi spores will attach to the insect body, germinate and through enzymatic action break the insect cuticle and penetrate the insect body. Death will occur over 3-5 days, depending on the size of the age, species, dose and the environmental conditions. The insect becomes a vector for the fungi while it lives, and while it is dead as spore are released from it to infect other insects. The Fungi does not kill predatory mites as they are not insects.

Relative humidity of above 70% and temperatures of between 18 – 30°C are essential for fungi development and growth. Infection will occur within 24 to 48 hours. For best results, application should be before pest infestations become heavy.

Application

EntophageXGen®  is applied as a foliar spray:

Mix EntophageXGen® ® with water at a rate of 1 Litre per 125gms. Mix well to form a uniform mixture. Add the mixture to the required volume of water in the spray tank and mix well.

Thoroughly coverage of the leaf surfaces where the insects are to be found is a must to obtain good efficacy. Best results will be achieved when applications are done early morning or late afternoon.

Rates

Preventive

250g/Ha* every 14 days.

Light/Medium Curative

250g/Ha* every 7 days.

Heavy Curative

250g/Ha* 5-7 days.

*per 500/1000L water.

Storage

Store in a cool, dry place in tightly closed original container. Do not freeze. The product may be stored in the original unopened container for 6 months at temperatures of 10-20°C.

Compatibility

EntophageXGen® is compatible with most bio controls and insecticides… Avoid chemical fungicide spray at least 3 days before and after using EntophageXGen®.

Beneficial Bacteria

Contains Bacterial spores which target only fly larvae.

Bio control agent: Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis

Category: Beneficial Bacteria

Target: Flies.

Crop: Bananas, passion fruits, vegetables, maize, cabbage and eggplant.

Mode of Action

The bacterial spores when eaten by the moth and/or fly will damage the stomach of the insect, killing it. The bacteria will germinate from the spores, eating the tissue of the dying insect and will also infect other insects that come into contact.

Application

BasilaFly+® application recommendations vary depending on method of application and target crop. Owing to its mode of action, the product should be applied preventatively before disease onset in the plants.

Drip application

Apply the solution through the fertigation drip system using adequate water volume. Agitation of the mixture should continue throughout the application period to ensure uniform distribution of the Basila Fly+ ®.

Drench application

Pour into a watering can or sprayer / applicator and apply evenly onto the target area. Irrigate the area treated with Basila Fly+ ® after application.

Dip application

This is recommended as a pre-transplant application for rooted plantlets or cuttings. Put them standing into perforated plastic crates and dip-to-soak soil plugs and /or roots into a solution of the product. Make a solution with 300ml in adequate water to treat plants to be planted in 1 hectare.

Frequency of Application

Apply pre-plant, as a seed coat or every two weeks to one month depending on the disease pressure.

Rates

It is recommended to apply Basila Fly+ ® at a minimum rate of 300ml per hectare.

Storage

Store Basila Fly+ ® in temperatures below…

Contains Bacterial spores which targets only moth and butterfly larvae (caterpillars).

Bio control agent: Bacillus Thuringiensis Kurkstani

Category: Beneficial Bacteria

Target: Moth and butterflies larvae.

Crop: Fruits, Bananas, Vegetables, maize, beans, peas, cabbage, lettuce and other leafy crops.

Mode of Action

The bacterial spores when eaten by the moth and/or fly will damage the stomach of the insect, killing it. The bacteria will germinate from the spores, eating the tissue of the dying insect.

 

Application

Basila+® application recommendations vary depending on method of application and target crop. Owing to its mode of action, the product should be applied preventatively before disease onset in the plants.

Drip application

Apply the solution through the fertigation drip system using adequate water volume. Agitation of the mixture should continue throughout the application period to ensure uniform distribution of the Basila+®.

Drench application

Pour into a watering can or sprayer / applicator and apply evenly onto the target area. Irrigate the area treated with Basila +® after application.

Dip application

This is recommended as a pre-transplant application for rooted plantlets or cuttings. Put them standing into perforated plastic crates and dip-to-soak soil plugs and /or roots into a solution of the product.

Frequency of Application

Apply pre-plant, as a seed coat or every two weeks to one month depending on the disease pressure.

Rates

It is recommended to apply Basila +® at a minimum rate of 300ml per hectare.

Storage

Store Basila +® in temperatures below…

Contains Bacterial spores which targets only moth and butterfly larvae.

Bio control agent: Bacillus Thuringiensis

Category: Beneficial Bacteria

Target: Moth and butterflies larvae.

Crop: Fruits, Vegetables, maize, beans, peas, cabbage, lettuce and other leafy crops.

Mode of Action

The bacterial spores when eaten by the moth and/or fly will damage the stomach of the insect, killing it. The bacteria will germinate from the spores, eating the tissue of the dying insect.

Application

Mothrid+® application recommendations vary depending on method of application and target crop. Owing to its mode of action, the product should be applied preventatively before disease onset in the plants.

Drip application

Apply the solution through the fertigation drip system using adequate water volume. Agitation of the mixture should continue throughout the application period to ensure uniform distribution of the Mothrid+®.

Drench application

Pour into a watering can or sprayer / applicator and apply evenly onto the target area. Irrigate the area treated with Mothrid+® after application.

Dip application

This is recommended as a pre-transplant application for rooted plantlets or cuttings. Put them standing into perforated plastic crates and dip-to-soak soil plugs and /or roots into a solution of the product.

Frequency of Application

Apply pre-plant, as a seed coat or every two weeks to one month depending on the disease pressure.

Rates

It is recommended to apply Mothrid+® at a minimum rate of 300ml per hectare.

Storage

Store Mothrid+® in temperatures below…

Contains Bacterial spores that are used to kill moths and butterflies and also improve plant performance and yield.

Bio control agent: Bacillus Subtilis

Category: Beneficial Bacteria

Target: Moth and butterflies larvae.

Crop: Fruits, Vegetables, maize, beans, peas, cabbage, lettuce and other leafy crops.

Mode of Action

The bacterial spores when eaten by the moth and/or fly will damage the stomach of the insect, killing it. The bacteria will germinate from the spores, eating the tissue of the dying insect.

Application

ProBoost +® application recommendations vary depending on method of application and target crop. Owing to its mode of action, the product should be applied preventatively before disease onset in the plants.

Drip application

Apply …ml of ProBoost +® per hectare. Pour in …ml of ProBoost +® into …..litres of water and mix thoroughly. Apply the solution through the fertigation drip system using adequate water volume. Agitation of the mixture should continue throughout the application period to ensure uniform distribution of ProBoost +®.

Drench application

Prepare a solution of ProBoost +®at the rate of …ml/ha in adequate water to cover the target area. Pour into a watering can or sprayer / applicator and apply evenly onto the target area. Irrigate the area treated with ProBoost +® after application.

Dip application

This is recommended as a pre-transplant application for rooted plantlets or cuttings. Put them standing into perforated plastic crates and dip-to-soak soil plugs and /or roots into a solution of the product. Make a solution with …ml in adequate water to treat plants to be planted in 1 hectare.

Frequency of Application

Apply pre-plant, as a seed coat or every two weeks to one month depending on the disease pressure.

Rates

It is recommended to apply ProBoost +® at a minimum rate of 300ml per hectare.

Storage

Store ProBoost +® in a cool dry place….

Beneficial Insect Mites

Contains the predatory mite Hypoaspis miles for managing Bulb mites, Thrips, Fungus gnats, Leaf miners, Sciarid flies, Red poultry mites and Shore flies. The adults of Hypoaspis miles are about 1mm in size and normally brown.

Biological control agent: Hypoaspis miles

Category: Beneficial Insect Predators

Target challenge: Bulb Mites, Leaf miners, Sciarid Flies, Thrips, Red poultry mite,

Used in: Flowers, Vegetables, Poultry, Animals

Mode of Action

In Poultry:

The mites are a natural enemy of the red poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in poultry operations. Both nymphs and adults feed on other small insects pests, consuming up to 5 preys per day. Both males and females are present, but males are smaller and rarely seen. When the primary food source (the poultry mite) is all gone, the predator mite will starve and die. The predators are safe for the birds, endemic (not a new species in the tropical environment), easily adjust to the chicken house climate, and are self-limiting.

Environmental Conditions

Predator prefers humid and moist soil/media conditions but it must not be too wet, they prefer rich organic matter with an open structure and temperature ranges of between 15-30° c.

 

Application

The mites are dispersed on to a growth media before or after planting or later on in the early growth period of the crop. For best results, ENTOPHAGEx® should be applied before the target pest is well established.

Rates

It is recommended to apply 50-300 mites per m2 or 500,000-3,000,000 mites per hectare. Higher rates are recommended where the target pest has established.

Storage

Storage after receipt maximum 1-2 days; normally recommended to use within 24 hrs of receipt. Store and transport at temperatures of 10-20°c, out of direct sunlight

Integrated Pest Management

IPM is an ecosystem-based strategy that focuses on long-term prevention of pests or their damage through a combination of techniques such as biological control, habitat manipulation, modification of cultural practices, and use of resistant varieties. IPM can be used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment and can be applied to manage all kinds of pests in farms. Pesticides are used only after monitoring indicates they are needed. Pest control materials are selected and applied in a manner that minimizes risks to human health, beneficial and non-target organisms, and the environment. This results in increases in soil fertility and reduction in pesticide use which have excellent benefits for famers. With fewer sprays in the crops, birds and animals, there is an increase in production and quality.
How Does IPM Work?
IPM focuses on long-term prevention of pests or their damage by managing the ecosystem. With IPM, actions are taken to keep pests from becoming a problem. In IPM, monitoring and correct pest identification help to determine whether management is needed. After monitoring, information about the pest, its biology, and environmental factors, control measures are then applied accordingly. The most effective, long-term way to manage pests is by using a combination of methods that work better together than separately. Approaches for managing pests are often grouped in the following categories.

Biological controlBiological control is the use of natural enemies—predators, parasites, pathogens, and competitors—to control pests and their damage. Invertebrates, plant pathogens, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrates have many natural enemies.
Cultural controlsCultural controls are practices that reduce pest establishment, reproduction, dispersal, and survival. For example, changing irrigation practices can reduce pest problems, since too much water can increase root disease and weeds.
Mechanical and physical controlsMechanical and physical controls kill a pest directly, block pests out, or make the environment unsuitable for it. Physical controls include mulches for weed management, steam sterilization of the soil, or screens to keep birds or insects out
Chemical controlChemical control is the use of pesticides. In IPM, pesticides are used only when needed and in combination with other approaches for more effective, long-term control. Pesticides are selected and applied in a way that minimizes their possible harm to people, non-target organisms, and the environment.

IPM Programs
Bio Bloom offers services and programs that combine these IPM principles and practices to design programs biased towards providing biological controls . Individual needs and situations differ from farm to farm but the programs are based on the following six major components:
1. Pest identification
2. Monitoring and assessing pest numbers and damage
3. Guidelines for when management action is needed
4. Preventing pest problems
5. Using a combination of biological, cultural, physical/mechanical and chemical management tools
6. After action is taken, assessing the effect of pest management
Through promoting IPM, we are committed to help farmers to produce products which contribute positively to the health and wellbeing of society.

Pests and Diseases

DISEASES
1. Pythium
Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of cereals, vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present in the field. Infected seedlings will appear spindly and stunted, and in cereals the first true leaf is often short, twisted and cupped. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. This causes the following problems in cereals:

  • Seedling may fail to appear above the ground or collapse as soon as they emerge.
  • Seedlings and plants suffer from stunting and soft brownish water rot.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma Koningiopsis)

2. Fusarium

The commonest manifestation of Fusarium in cereals is Fusarium Ear Blight (FEB) which is also known as Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) or scab. This is caused by a range of Fusarium fungi which infect the head of the cereal limiting grain development. FEB can cause severe economic loss to farmers as it can limit yields, while additionally, contaminated cereal cannot be sold for food or animal and chicken feed.

  • Ear or head blight (also known as scab) in maize, wheat and barley which infects the heads of the crops reducing grain yield.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma Koningiopsis)

CEREAL SOIL HEALTH

  1. Enhanced Crop Development

For favorable soil health, it is important that there are favorable interactions of all soil components including micribiota, plants and animals. This is key for agricultural sustainability and required for emerging population food needs. Modern agriculture therefore requires an integrated water, crop, pest and disease management strategy, which includes managing soil fertility and soil physical properties through promotion of soil biodiversity and soil biological processes.

While soil nutrients may be present in large amounts in the soil, they are in forms that cannot be accessed by plants. Microorganisms help to break them down to levels where plants can absorb them. Such nutrients may include phosphorous and potassium. Many bacteria and fungi secrete organic acids or other chemicals (siderophores) which dissolve the minerals and make them available to plants.

Using these micro-organisms improves plant health and crop yield improving farmers’ incomes. This increase in yield and quality has been demonstrated in a wide range of plants even during times of stress.

Solutions: FoundationX15® (Trichoderma Koningiopsis), ProBoost® (Bacillus Subtilis), Flourish®   (Black soldier Fly Compost + Trichoderma Koningiopsis + Bacillus Subtilis)

  1. Enhanced Root Development

Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, is important for crop success. This is the basis of a healthy plant as shoot growth, quality and crop yield all depend on a large, healthy root system.

A well-developed root network encourages beneficial interactions with micro ‐ organisms that allows soil exploration, resource acquisition and maintenance of crop performance even under trauma caused by disease, and limited soil, water and nutrients.

The beneficial micro-organisms in this network effectively reduce root rots and increase the solubility of phosphates and micronutrients such as zinc, copper, iron and manganese thus enhancing plant performance.

Solutions: FoundationX15® (Trichoderma koningiopsis), ProBoost® (Bacillus Subtilis), NEMARID3X® (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

Mealy Bugs

About: Mealybugs occur in two different forms depending on their sex: female adults are wingless soft, oval, flat-bodied insects covered with a white, powdery wax (hence the name ‘mealy bug’), while males are winged wasp-like flying insects as adults. The most common species in the greenhouse is the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri

Damage: Mealy bugs, like aphids and whiteflies, suck sap from the plant’s phloem tissues causing stunting, leaf deformation and sometimes yellowing. They also excrete honeydew that serves as a substrate for black sooty mold development, affecting photosynthesis and aesthetic value of the plant.

Solution: FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillum lecanii), MaxKillx5® (Bavaria bassiana)

Coffee Berry borer
Biology:

Damage:

Bio control: MaxKillx5® (Bauveria Bassiana)

Parasitic Plant Nematodes
About: Nematodes are tiny, round-bodied, un-segmented, worms. Plant parasitic nematodes cause economic losses to horticultural and field crop worldwide. With serious concerns about the use of nematicide in terms of food safety and environmental quality issue.

Damage: Stunting and yellowing with a tendency to wilt. Distorted, swollen and bearing knots of various sizes on roots. Mid- day wilting of the crop, Patched of poor crop growth on the field, galls on the roots, stubby roots and lesions and dark spots on the root.

Solutions: FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii), NEMARID3X® (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

Scale Insects

About:

Damage:

Solutions: MaxKillx5® (Bauvaria Bassiana)

Thrips
Adult thrips are tiny (1-2mm long) slender insects with fringed wings. Immature thrips are similarly shaped with a long, narrow abdomen but lack wings. Most thrips range in colour from translucent white or yellowish to dark brown or blackish, depending on the species and life stage.

Damage: Thrips feed in rapidly growing tissue by sucking sap from individual cells. The sucked out empty cells are filled with air, causing a silvery appearance. Petals may exhibit ‘’colour brake,” which is pale or dark discoloration of petal tissue affected. Infested terminals may discolor, deform, and drop leaves prematurely. When thrips populations are high on ornamentals, flower buds may become deformed and fail to open. Petals may be covered with brown streaks and spots. Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) can also vector certain spoviruses including Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV) and several strains of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV)

Solution: MaxKillx5® (Beauveria Bassiana), ENTOPHAGEx® (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii),  NEMARID3X® (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

einernema feltiae)

Enhanced Crop Development

Improvement in agricultural sustainability requires an integrated water, crop, pest and disease management strategy, managing soil fertility and soil physical properties by promoting soil biodiversity and soil biological processes offers the potential for using rhizosphere processes to improve soil quality and productivity.

In many soils, nutrients such as phosphorus, potassium and iron are present in large amounts but in forms that are not available to plants. Many bacteria and fungi are able to make these nutrients available to plants by secreting organic acids or other chemicals (siderophores) to dissolve the minerals. These beneficial micro-organisms are naturally occurring and are prolific and readily available in natural, undisturbed, rich, fertile lands.

The use of these micro-organisms results in high quality crop yields often demonstrated in both size and volume of produce. This increase in yield and quality has been demonstrated in a wide range of plants even during times of stress. Increasing yield while improving quality attributes, such as firmness, colour, size and crop uniformity, gives you the competitive edge and increased profits which are key pillars of sustainable agriculture.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis), Flourish ® (BSF Compost+Trichoderma+Bacillus Subtilis)

Root Development

Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, is vital to a crop’s success. Shoot growth, quality and yield all depend on the development of a strong plant with a large, healthy root system that helps you get the most out of your fertilizer program.

A well-developed root network encourages beneficial interactions with micro ‐ organisms that allows soil exploration, resource acquisition and maintenance of crop performance even under stress caused by disease and limited soil water and nutrient conditions.

The beneficial micro-organisms in this network effectively reduce root rots and increase the solubility of phosphates and micronutrients such as zinc, copper, iron and manganese thus enhancing growth of the roots and the above ground parts of the plant.

Solutions: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis), NEMARID3X® (Purpureocillium lilacinus).

FLOWER PESTS

About: Aphids have soft pear-shaped bodies measuring 1.5-4mm in length with long legs and antennae, their color ranges from green, yellow, brown, red, to black depending on the species. They occur in clusters around the young terminal shoots or under the leaves.

Damage: Aphid nymphs and adults suck plant sap leading to stunted growth, deformed leaves and sometimes yellow spots appear. In addition to damage from direct feeding on plant sap, they excrete excess sugars in the form of honeydew which serves as a growth medium for black sooty mold. This soils the crop, reducing photosynthesis and consequently growth and production. Aphids are also vectors of plant pathogenic substances, particularly, viruses.

Solutions: MaxKillx5® (Beauveria Bassiana), FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii)

About: Cutworms is the name used for the larvae of a number of species of adult moths. Adults are grayish hairless caterpillars of waxy appearance that attacks vegetables during nights and hides in the soil during the day. The larvae stage attacks the first part it encounters, the stem and often the seedling. The adult moth has brown wings with 1-1/2 inch wingspan.

Damage: Wilting in young plants with stems attacked near the ground level.

Solution: EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9).

About: Cyclamen mites are tiny arachnids that are oval, translucent white to yellow-green in color and are 0.25mm in size with six legs for the first nymph and eight legs for the remaining stages. They are very difficult to identify until severe damages occur. Cyclamen mites are mostly found on the base of the plant or near the buds. They prefer darkened humid areas of immature leaves and buds in growing tips.

Damage: Cyclamen mites feed through sucking the cell contents resulting in detrimental damage. Plant symptoms include distortion of the growing tip, resulting in thickening of the meristematic (growing point) tissue. Damages results in the curling up of leaves and blotching with some foliage turning purple in color. Damaged buds do not develop and plants may not produce flowers or fruits.

Solution: EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9).

About: Vegetable Leafminers are small black flies with a bright yellow spot on their thorax; the maggot makes long, slender, white mines (tunnels) in leaves. Mining or puncturing activities on the plant causes cosmetic damage and makes it an important pest.  The larvae are often visible within the mine where they remove mesophyll between the surfaces of the leaf.

Damage: The act of laying eggs and feeding on leaves can kill seedlings. It is also an agent for fungal diseases.

Solution: MaxKillx5® (Beauveria Bassiana), ENTOPHAGEx® (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii), EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9), Basila Fly+ (CFU 9*10(9) Strain BT10)

About: Nematodes are tiny, round-bodied, unsegmented, worms. Plant parasitic nematodes cause economic losses to horticultural and field crop worldwide. They also pause serious concerns in terms of food safety and environmental quality issues.

Damage: Stunting and yellowing with a tendency to wilt. Visibly, there will be distortions, swellings and knots of various sizes on the plant roots. Mid- day wilting of the crop, Patches of poor crop growth on the field, galls on the roots, stubby roots and lesions and dark spots on the root.

Solution: NEMARID3X® (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

About: Spider mites are tiny arachnids (not insects) measuring about 0.5mm long with an oval shaped body which varies in color from greenish-yellow, to virtually transparent, brown, and red-orange with two dark spots visible on either side of the abdomen. The life cycle involves five developmental stages: egg, larva, two nymphal stages, and adult. Immatures resemble adults (except they are much smaller and lighter in colour), and the newly hatched larvae have only six legs.

Damage: Adults and juveniles feed on the underside of leaves by inserting their stylets into the plant cells and sucking out the cell contents resulting in typical ‘stippling’ damage i.e. white or chlorotic spots easily recognizable on the upper leaf surface. Defoliation, leaf burning, and even plant death can occur due to direct feeding damage. Indirect effects of feeding may include decrease in photosynthesis and transpiration. This combination of direct and indirect effects often reduces the aesthetic value and/or amount of harvestable material.

Solution: EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9).

About: Adult Sciarid flies are slender, approximately 2.5 mm in length, and have long legs and antennae. They are weak fliers but can run quite rapidly across the soil surface. Their wings are clear or smokey-colored with no pattern and few distinct veins. However, the females of several species are wingless. They have shiny black head capsules.

Damage: Larvae, however, when present in large numbers, can damage roots and stunt plant growth, particularly in seedlings and young plants. Significant root damage and even plant death have been observed in interior plants capes and in houseplants when high populations were associated with moist, organically-rich soil.

Solution: ENTOPHAGEx® (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), Basila Fly+ (CFU 9*10(9) Strain BT10)

About: Adult thrips are tiny (1-2mm long) slender insects with fringed wings. Immatures are similarly shaped with a long, narrow abdomen but lack wings. Most thrips range in colour from translucent white or yellowish to dark brown or blackish, depending on the species and life stage.

Damage: Thrips feed in rapidly growing tissue by sucking sap from individual cells. The sucked out empty cells are filled with air, causing a silvery appearance. Petals may exhibit ‘’colour brake,” which is pale or dark discoloration of petal tissue affected. Infested terminals may discolor, deform, and drop leaves prematurely. When thrips populations are high on ornamentals, flower buds may become deformed and fail to open. Petals may be covered with brown streaks and spots. Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) can also vector certain spoviruses including Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV) and several strains of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV)

Solution: MaxKillx5® (Beauveria Bassiana), ENTOPHAGEx® (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii), EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9).

About: Whiteflies derive their name from the powdery white wax covering the adult’s wings and body. Adults are tiny (less than 2mm long) insects with yellowish bodies and whitish wings. They usually occur in groups on the undersides of leaves. The most common species in horticultural farming is the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

Damage: Whiteflies suck phloem sap. Large populations can cause leaves to deform, turn yellow, appear dry, or fall off plants. They also excrete honeydew, so leaves may be sticky or covered with black sooty mold. The honeydew may also attract ants, which interfere with the activities of natural enemies that may control whiteflies and other pests.

Solution: MaxKillx5® (Beauveria Bassiana), FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii), EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9).

About: Mealy bugs occur in two different forms depending on their sex: female adults are wingless soft, oval, flat-bodied insects covered with a white, powdery wax (hence the name ‘mealy bug’), while males are winged wasp-like flying insects as adults.

Biology: The females go through the stages of egg, three nymphal stages and adult insect; the males go through egg, two nymphal stages, false pupa and adult insect. A female can lay up to 500 eggs in a cotton-like pouch made of wax threads after which it dies. The eggs hatch into young bugs called crawlers which disperse to find suitable feeding sites and then begin to feed on plant sap. This is the most susceptible stage to chemical pesticides as they do not have the waxy covering. The length of the lifecycle depends on temperature and takes 90 days at 18°C and 30 days at 30°C.

Damage: Mealy bugs, like aphids and whiteflies, suck sap from the plant’s phloem tissues causing stunting, leaf deformation and sometimes yellowing. They also excrete honeydew that serves as a substrate for black sooty mold development, affecting photosynthesis and aesthetic value of the plant.

Solution: (Beauveria Bassiana), (Lecanicillium lecanii) EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9).

FLOWER DISEASES

About: A fungal disease which attacks cankered stems and flowers. The fungus grows into a gray brown fuzz mycelium that causes the flower petals to turn brown and shrivel. The predisposing factors are cooler and moist weather conditions. This can be accelerated by weakened plant tissues. Stressed plants are highly susceptible to the disease pathogens.

Damage: Infection usually begins spotted flower petals. A grayish brown fuzz grows on infected plant parts. Flowers shrivel and decay.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis).

Crown Gall

The disease is caused by a soil inhabiting bacteria that enters the plant through wounds (cuts, abrasions). The bacterium forms cream, brownish black, irregular masses of tissue (galls) that start as small tissue swellings and eventually develop into lumpy and rough textured masses. This bacterium attacks the roots and the bud union and usually concentrates on the lower base of a plant. Infected plants can survive with this gall for several years or decline and eventually die. These galls can negatively impact on rose’s production.

Damage

  • Galls start as small swellings and gradually grow into rough and bulbous masses of tissue.
  • Heavy infestations severely retard growth and new shoot formation.

Solution: NEMARID3X® (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

About: A major disease of foliar of roses and other flowers which is actually hot environments. The initial symptoms are found on the top surface of leaves and consist of small pale green to greasy looking angular or rectangular spots that are delimited by leaf vein. During moist weather the corresponding lower leaf surface is covered with downy, pale gray to purple fungal mycelium and spores.

Damage: Purple angular spots with yellow edges forms on the veins on the upper leaf surface. Fluffy gray spores grow on the underside of infected leaves. Blackish to dark red spots may appear on infected plant stem in severe infestation. Leaves become brittle and drop off.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of roses. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

About: This disease is caused by a fungus that attacks the plant and forms a white powdery spore on new tender growth then spreads out into other plant parts. The pathogen is usually favoured by warm, dry days and cooler, damp nights. The new leaves may become curled or twisted and the shoots may look badly deformed. In some varieties, the upper surface of the leaf may appear normal but the underside has extensive fungus growth.

Damage: Starts as small white or gray powdery spots on leaves or new growth. Leaves covered with white powdery mold, occurs in hot dry conditions.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis

About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of roses. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off.” Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis),

About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of flowers. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of roses. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

FRUIT PESTS

Mealy bugs occur in two different forms depending on their sex: female adults are wingless soft, oval, flat-bodied insects covered with a white, powdery wax (hence the name ‘mealy bug’), while males are winged wasp-like flying insects as adults. The most common species in the greenhouse is the citrus mealy bug, Planococcus citri.

About: The females go through the stages of egg, three nymphal stages and adult insect; the males go through egg, two nymphal stages, false pupa and adult insect. A female can lay up to 500 eggs in a cotton-like pouch made of wax threads after which it dies. The eggs hatch into young bugs called crawlers which disperse to find suitable feeding sites and then begin to feed on plant sap. This is the most susceptible stage to chemical pesticides as they do not have the waxy covering. The length of the lifecycle depends on temperature and takes 90 days at 18°C and 30 days at 30°C.

Damage: Mealybugs, like aphids and whiteflies, suck sap from the plant’s phloem tissues causing stunting, leaf deformation and sometimes yellowing. They also excrete honeydew that serves as a substrate for black sooty mold development, affecting photosynthesis and aesthetic value of the plant.

Solution: MaxKillx5® (Beauveria Bassiana),  FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii)

About: Aphids have soft pear-shaped bodies measuring 1.5-4mm in length with long legs and antennae, their colour ranges from green, yellow, brown, red, to black depending on the species. They occur in clusters around the young terminal shoots or under the leaves.

Damage: Aphid nymphs and adults suck plant sap leading to stunted growth, deformed leaves and sometimes yellow spots appear. In addition to damage from direct feeding on plant sap, they excrete excess sugars in the form of honeydew which serves as a growth medium for black sooty mold. This soils the crop, reducing photosynthesis and consequently growth and production. Aphids are also vectors of plant pathogenic substances, particularly, viruses.

Solutions: MaxKillx5® (Beauveria Bassiana), FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii)

About: Cyclamen mites are tiny arachnids that are oval, translucent white to yellow-green in colour and are 0.25mm in size with six legs for the first nymph and eight legs for the remaining stages. They are very difficult to identify until severe damages occur. Cyclamen mites are mostly found on the base of the plant or near the buds. They prefer darkened humid areas of immature leaves and buds in growing tips.

Damage: Cyclamen mites feed through sucking the cell contents resulting in detrimental damage. Plant symptoms include distortion of the growing tip, resulting in thickening of the meristematic (growing point) tissue. Damages results in the curling up of leaves and blotching with some foliage turning purple in colour. Damaged buds do not develop and plants may not produce flowers or fruits.

Solution: EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9).

About: Nematodes are tiny, round-bodied, un-segmented, worms. Plant parasitic nematodes cause economic losses to horticultural and field crop worldwide. There are serious concerns in terms of food safety and environmental quality issues.

Damage: Stunting and yellowing with a tendency to wilt. There will be visible distortion, swellings and knots of various sizes on roots. Mid- day wilting of the crop, Patched of poor crop growth on the field, galls on the roots, stubby roots and lesions and dark spots on the root.

Solution: NEMARID3X® (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

About: Spider mites are tiny arachnids (not insects) measuring about 0.5mm long with an oval shaped body which varies in colour from greenish-yellow, to virtually transparent, brown, and red-orange with two dark spots visible on either side of the abdomen. The life cycle involves five developmental stages: egg, larva, two nymphal stages, and adult. Young ones resemble adults (except they are much smaller and lighter in colour), and the newly hatched larvae have only six legs.

Damage: Adults and juveniles feed on the underside of leaves by inserting their stylets into the plant cells and sucking out the cell contents resulting in typical ‘stippling’ damage i.e. white or chlorotic spots easily recognizable on the upper leaf surface. Defoliation, leaf burning, and even plant death can occur due to direct feeding damage. Indirect effects of feeding may include decrease in photosynthesis and transpiration. This combination of direct and indirect effects often reduces the aesthetic value and/or amount of harvestable material.

Solution: Entophage Super® (Metarhizium anisopliae)

About: Adult Sciarid flies are slender, approximately 2.5 mm in length, and have long legs and antennae. They are weak fliers but can run quite rapidly across the soil surface. Their wings are clear or smokey-colored with no pattern and few distinct veins. However, the females of several species are wingless. They have shiny black head capsules.

Damage: Larvae, however, when present in large numbers, can damage roots and stunt plant growth, particularly in seedlings and young plants. Significant root damage and even plant death have been observed in interior and houseplants when high populations were associated with moist, organically-rich soil.

Solution: ENTOPHAGEx® (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9).

About: Adult thrips are tiny (1-2mm long) slender insects with fringed wings. Immatures are similarly shaped with a long, narrow abdomen but lack wings. Most thrips range in colour from translucent white or yellowish to dark brown or blackish, depending on the species and life stage.

Damage: Thrips feed in rapidly growing tissue by sucking sap from individual cells. The sucked out empty cells are filled with air, causing a silvery appearance. Petals may exhibit ‘’colour brake,” which is pale or dark discoloration of petal tissue affected. Infested terminals may discolor, deform, and drop leaves prematurely. When thrips populations are high on ornamentals, flower buds may become deformed and fail to open. Petals may be covered with brown streaks and spots. Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) can also vector certain spoviruses including Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV) and several strains of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV)

Solution: MaxKillx5® (Beauveria Bassiana), ENTOPHAGEx® (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii).

About: Whiteflies derive their name from the powdery white wax covering the adult’s wings and body. Adults are tiny (less than 2mm long) insects with yellowish bodies and whitish wings. They usually occur in groups on the undersides of leaves. The most common species in horticultural farming is the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

Damage: Whiteflies suck phloem sap. Large populations can cause leaves to deform, turn yellow, appear dry, or fall off plants. They also excrete honeydew, so leaves may be sticky or covered with black sooty mold. The honeydew may also attract ants, which interfere with the activities of natural enemies that may control whiteflies and other pests.

Solution: MaxKillx5® (Beauveria Bassiana), FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii).

FRUIT DISEASES

About: A fungal disease which attacks cankered stems and flowers. The fungus grows into a gray brown fuzz mycelium that causes the flower petals to turn brown and shrivel. The predisposing factors are cooler and moist weather conditions. This can be accelerated by weakened plant tissues. Stressed plants are highly susceptible to the disease pathogens.

Damage: Infection usually begins spotted flower petals. Grayish brown fuzz grows on infected plant parts. Flowers shrivel and decay.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

About: A major disease of foliar of fruits and is particular severe in tropical environment. The initial symptoms are found on the top surface of leaves and consist of small pale green to greasy looking angular or rectangular spots that are delimited by leaf vein. During moist weather the corresponding lower leaf surface is covered with downy, pale gray to purple fungal mycelium and spores.

Damage: Purple angular spots with yellow edges forms on the veins on the upper leaf surface. Fluffy gray spores grow on the underside of infected leaves. Blackish to dark red spots may appear on infected plant stem in severe infestation. Leaves become brittle and drop off.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of fruits. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis).

About: This disease is caused by a fungus that attacks the plant and forms a white powdery spore on new tender growth then spreads out into other plant parts. The pathogen is usually favored by warm, dry days and cooler, damp nights. The new leaves may become curled or twisted and the shoots may look badly deformed. In some varieties, the upper surface of the leaf may appear normal but the underside has extensive fungus growth.

Damage: Starts as small white or gray powdery spots on leaves or new growth. Leaves covered with white powdery mold, occurs in hot dry conditions.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off.” Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis).

About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis).

About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

DISEASES

Armillaria is a parasitic fungi that lives on the trees and woody shrubs, in small dense clumps or tufts. The mushroom tops are usually yellow-brown, with a sticky touch when moist.

Damage: Armillaria is a destructive pathogen in that it causes “white rot” root disease. Armillaria is a facultative saprophyte, feeding on dead plant material which allows it to kill its hosts. This is different to a parasite which must moderate their growth to avoid host death.. An infected tree will die once the fungus has caused significant root damage. Symptoms include shortage of leave in spring and mushrooms grow in clusters from the infected plant.

Solution: FoundationX15® (Trichoderma Koningiopsis)

TEA SOIL HEALTH

Improvement in agricultural sustainability requires an integrated water, crop, pest and disease management strategy, managing soil fertility and soil physical properties by promoting soil biodiversity and soil biological processes offers the potential for using rhizosphere processes to improve soil quality and productivity.

In many soils, nutrients such as phosphorus, potassium and iron are present in large amounts but in forms that are not available to plants. Many bacteria and fungi are able to make these nutrients available to plants by secreting organic acids or other chemicals (siderophores) to dissolve the minerals. These beneficial micro-organisms are naturally occurring and are prolific and readily available in natural, undisturbed, rich, fertile lands.

The use of these micro-organisms results in high quality crop yields often demonstrated in both size and volume of produce. This increase in yield and quality has been demonstrated in a wide range of plants even during times of stress. Increasing yield while improving quality attributes, such as firmness, colour, size and crop uniformity, gives you the competitive edge and increased profits which are key pillars of sustainable agriculture.

Solution: FoundationX15® (Trichoderma koningiopsis), ProBoost® Bacillus Subtilis, Flourish® (Blackfly Compost + Trichoderma + Bacillus Subtilis)

Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, is vital to a crop’s success. Shoot growth, quality and yield all depend on the development of a strong plant with a large, healthy root system that helps you get the most out of your fertilizer program.

A well-developed root network encourages beneficial interactions with micro ‐ organisms that allows soil exploration, resource acquisition and maintenance of crop performance even under stress caused by disease and limited soil water and nutrient conditions.

The beneficial micro-organisms in this network effectively reduce root rots and increase the solubility of phosphates and micronutrients such as zinc, copper, iron and manganese thus enhancing growth of the roots and the above ground parts of the plant.

Solution: NEMARID3X® (Purpureocillium lilacinus), FoundationX15® (Trichoderma Koningiopsis), ProBoost® (Bacillus Subtilis), EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9).

VEGETABLE PESTS

About: Aphids have soft pear-shaped bodies measuring 1.5-4mm in length with long legs and antennae, their colour ranges from green, yellow, brown, red, to black depending on the species. They occur in clusters around the young terminal shoots or under the leaves.

Damage: Aphid nymphs and adults suck plant sap leading to stunted growth, deformed leaves and sometimes yellow spots appear. In addition to damage from direct feeding on plant sap, they excrete excess sugars in the form of honeydew which serves as a growth medium for black sooty mold. This soils the crop, reducing photosynthesis and consequently growth and production. Aphids are also vectors of plant pathogenic substances, particularly, viruses.

Solutions: MaxKillx5® (Beauveria Bassiana), FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii)

About: Bulb mites infest the bulbs of many plant species among them; lilies, onions, tulip, hyacinth and many other vegetable crops, cereals and ornamentals. They can occur in the field during growing and in storage after harvest.

Damage: Bulb mites feed on the underground parts of bulbs, weakening the plant tissues. Feeding scars predispose the bulbs to secondary infection by plant pathogens such as Fusarium, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia. Typical symptoms include rosetting, retarded growth, and chlorosis of new shoots and occasionally the new growth can be smothered to death. Flower stalks can be stunted or fail to develop all together. Bulb mites are difficult to observe until their damage becomes apparent.

Solution: ENTOPHAGEx® (Stratiolaelaps scimitus)

About: Cutworms is the name used for the larvae of a number of species of adult moths. Adults are grayish hairless caterpillars of waxy appearance that attack vegetables during nights and hides in the soil during the day. The larvae stage attacks the first part it encounters, the stem and often the seedling. The adult moth has brown wings with 1-1/2 inch wingspan.

Damage: It causes wilting in young plants, with plants attacked near ground level.

Solution: EntophageX15® (9CFU 9*10(9) Strains X5, X23, X20, X9, X22), Mothrid+® (Aizawai Strain BTAB11)

About: Cyclamen mites are tiny arachnids that are oval, translucent white to yellow-green in colour and are 0.25mm in size with six legs for the first nymph and eight legs for the remaining stages. They are very difficult to identify until severe damages occur. Cyclamen mites are mostly found on the base of the plant or near the buds. They prefer darkened humid areas of immature leaves and buds in growing tips.

Damage: Cyclamen mites feed through sucking the cell contents resulting in detrimental damage. Plant symptoms include distortion of the growing tip, resulting in thickening of the meristematic (growing point) tissue. Damages results in the curling up of leaves and blotching with some foliage turning purple in colour. Damaged buds do not develop and plants may not produce flowers or fruits.

Solution: EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9) Strains X5, X23, X20, X9, X22).

About: The moth is a small, greyish brown with narrow front wings, conspicuously fringed hind wings, and approximately 8 to 9 mm long with a wing span of 12 to 15 mm. When at rest, the wings come together to form a line of white or pale yellow diamonds down the middle of the back. When the wings are folded while the moth is at rest, these markings come together to form three yellow diamonds, hence the name “diamondback”. The life cycle involves seven developmental stages: egg, four larvae instars, pupa and Adult.

Damage: Plant damage is caused by larval feeding. Although the larvae are very small, they can be quite numerous, resulting in complete removal of foliar tissue except for the leaf veins. This “window-pane” damage is very characteristic. This is particularly damaging to seedlings, and may disrupt head formation in cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower. The presence of larvae in florets can result in complete rejection of produce, even if the level of plant tissue removal is insignificant.

Solution: Basila+® (Bacillus Thuringiensis Kurkstani), ENTOPHAGEx® Stratiolaelaps scimitus mites)

About: Vegetable Leafminers is a small black fly with a bright yellow spot on their thorax; the maggot makes long, slender, white mines (tunnels) in leaves. Mining or puncturing activities on the plant causes cosmetic damage and makes it an important pest.  The larvae are often visible within the mine where they remove mesophyll between the surfaces of the leaf.

Damage: The act of laying eggs and feeding on leaves can kill seedlings. It is also an agent for fungal diseases.

Solution: MaxKillx5® (Beauveria Bassiana), ENTOPHAGEx® (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii).

About: Nematodes are tiny, round-bodied, unsegmented, worms. Plant parasitic nematodes cause economic losses to horticultural and field crop worldwide. There are also serious concerns in terms of food safety and environmental quality issues.

Damage: Stunting and yellowing with a tendency to wilt. Visibly, there will be Distorted, swollen and bearing knots of various sizes on roots. Mid- day wilting of the crop, Patched of poor crop growth on the field, galls on the roots, stubby roots and lesions and dark spots on the root.

Solution: NEMARID3X® (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

About: Spider mites are tiny arachnids (not insects) measuring about 0.5mm long with an oval shaped body which varies in colour from greenish-yellow, to virtually transparent, brown, and red-orange with two dark spots visible on either side of the abdomen. The life cycle involves five developmental stages: egg, larva, two nymphal stages, and adult. Immatures resemble adults (except they are much smaller and lighter in colour), and the newly hatched larvae have only six legs.

Damage: Adults and juveniles feed on the underside of leaves by inserting their stylets into the plant cells and sucking out the cell contents resulting in typical ‘stippling’ damage i.e. white or chlorotic spots easily recognizable on the upper leaf surface. Defoliation, leaf burning, and even plant death can occur due to direct feeding damage. Indirect effects of feeding may include decrease in photosynthesis and transpiration. This combination of direct and indirect effects often reduces the aesthetic value and/or amount of harvestable material.

Solution: Entophage Super® (Metarhizium anisopliae)

About: Adult Sciarid flies are slender, approximately 2.5 mm in length, and have long legs and antennae. They are weak fliers but can run quite rapidly across the soil surface. Their wings are clear or smokey-colored with no pattern and few distinct veins. However, the females of several species are wingless. They have shiny black head capsules.

Damage: Larvae, however, when present in large numbers, can damage roots and stunt plant growth, particularly in seedlings and young plants. Significant root damage and even plant death have been observed in interior and house plants when high populations were associated with moist, organically-rich soil.

Solution: ENTOPHAGEx® (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9).

About: Adult thrips are tiny (1-2mm long) slender insects with fringed wings. Immatures are similarly shaped with a long, narrow abdomen but lack wings. Most thrips range in colour from translucent white or yellowish to dark brown or blackish, depending on the species and life stage.

Damage: Thrips feed in rapidly growing tissue by sucking sap from individual cells. The sucked out empty cells are filled with air, causing a silvery appearance. Petals may exhibit ‘’colour brake,” which is pale or dark discoloration of petal tissue affected. Infested terminals may discolor, deform, and drop leaves prematurely. When thrips populations are high on ornamentals, flower buds may become deformed and fail to open. Petals may be covered with brown streaks and spots. Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) can also vector certain spoviruses including Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV) and several strains of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV)

Solution: MaxKillx5® (Beauveria Bassiana), ENTOPHAGEx® (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii), EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9).

About: Whiteflies derive their name from the powdery white wax covering the adult’s wings and body. Adults are tiny (less than 2mm long) insects with yellowish bodies and whitish wings. They usually occur in groups on the undersides of leaves. The most common species in horticultural farming is the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

Damage: Whiteflies suck phloem sap. Large populations can cause leaves to deform, turn yellow, appear dry, or fall off plants. They also excrete honeydew, so leaves may be sticky or covered with black sooty mold. The honeydew may also attract ants, which interfere with the activities of natural enemies that may control whiteflies and other pests.

Solution: MaxKillx5® (Beauveria Bassiana), FarmJoy Plus® (Lecanicillium lecanii), EntophageXGen® (9CFU 9*10(9).

VEGETABLES DISEASES

About: A fungal disease which attacks cankered stems and flowers. The fungus grows into a gray brown fuzz mycelium that causes the flower petals to turn brown and shrivel. The predisposing factors are cooler and moist weather conditions. This can be accelerated by weakened plant tissues. Stressed plants are highly susceptible to the disease pathogens.

Damage: Infection usually begins spotted flower petals. Grayish brown fuzz grows on infected plant parts. Flowers shrivel and decay.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

About: A major disease of foliar of vegetables and herbs and is particular severe in tropical environment. The initial symptoms are found on the top surface of leaves and consist of small pale green to greasy looking angular or rectangular spots that are delimited by leaf vein. During moist weather the corresponding lower leaf surface is covered with downy, pale gray to purple fungal mycelium and spores.

Damage: Purple angular spots with yellow edges forms on the veins on the upper leaf surface. Fluffy gray spores grow on the underside of infected leaves. Blackish to dark red spots may appear on infected plant stem in severe infestation. Leaves become brittle and drop off.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

About: This disease is caused by a fungus that attacks the plant and forms a white powdery spore on new tender growth then spreads out into other plant parts. The pathogen is usually favoured by warm, dry days and cooler, damp nights. The new leaves may become curled or twisted and the shoots may look badly deformed. In some varieties, the upper surface of the leaf may appear normal but the underside has extensive fungus growth.

Damage: Starts as small white or gray powdery spots on leaves or new growth. Leaves covered with white powdery mold, occurs in hot dry conditions.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off.” Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis),

About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

Solution: FoundationX15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

LIVESTOCK PESTS

TICKS

All livestock keepers know about ticks. These present the biggest challenge in livestock operations.

About: Ticks are external, temporary and obligate parasites which depend on blood to live. Hot and humid climates favor their survival, while the low temperatures inhibit their development. Ticks belong to two main families, Ixodidae and Argasidae. The most important is the Ixodidae, also called hard ticks, due to the presence of a rigid chitinous shield, which covers the entire dorsal surface of the adult male. In the adult female and in the larva and the nymph it extends only by a small area, which allows the abdomen to swell after feeding. The other family is the Argasidae or soft ticks, so called because they lack of a shield. There is a third family (Nuttalliellidae) to which only one species belongs.

Ticks are one of the biggest public health and veterinary problems in the world. These ectoparasites can impact the production and health of the animals, either directly by the effect of their bites or by the infectious agents they transmit, which include viruses, bacteria, rickettsiae and protozoa. .

Damage, harm and economic impact

  • Massive infestations of ticks can cause anemia, as a result of blood loss. Each time a tick bites its host to feed it causes stress and weakens its immune response affecting its productivity, which results in losses in the production of meat and milk, increased morbidity and in many cases mortality, in addition to the indirect economic losses for producers related to prevention and control costs.
  • Sites bitten by ticks cause lesions that may predispose to localized dermatitis, secondary bacterial infections, or invasion by flies (miasis) that are attracted to bloody areas [6]. Certain ticks contain paralyzing toxins in their saliva (for example Dermacentor andersoni, Ixodes rubicundus, I. holocyclus) that can even cause the death of affected animals. The saliva of Hyalomma truncatum can also cause toxicosis that manifests as widespread eczema in African livestock species.
  • Tick bites and subsequent itching are certainly irritating for livestock that reacts with intense scratching and stress. In severe cases scratching can cause wounds that become infected. Weight loss and reduced milk production may result.

Solution: Neem, ENTOPHAGEX20® (CFU 9*10(9) (Isaria) Entophage Super® (CFU 9*10(9) (Metarhizium)

Application: As advised by the Customer Care Officer.

POULTRY MITES

About:

The red poultry mite, also known as the chicken mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), is a significant ecto-parasite of commercial egg laying and backyard chicken. Infestations can often go unrecognized for long periods of time, as signs presented by the birds are often initially subtle. The mites are nocturnal and will hide in cracks and crevices of chicken coops during the daylight hours only coming out at night to feed on the chickens. Red poultry mites are transmitted to flocks through infected hosts (including other birds, rodents and humans).

Damage

Chicken flocks infested with red poultry mites often develop anemia, increased stress and feather pecking (loss), restlessness, and show changes in sleep patterns and associated roost positions. Anemia presents as a pale comb and wattles, dullness, reduced egg production, and weakness. Poultry mites are a menace in poultry farms. Poultry mites drink chicken blood; almost doubling their size when full. Chickens become anemic, and can even die from an infestation. Sitting chickens are at greater risk of a slow blood-letting death. Most of the solutions on the market today are chemical based. Lucky enough, we have a safe and proven biological solution: Stratiolaelaps Scimitus (Hypoaspis miles).

Adult red poultry mites are about 0.6 to 1 mm in length, have 8 legs and can range in color from white to gray, to black to deep red (depending on whether it has recently fed on blood). They have a rapid life cycle and can grow from egg to larva, followed by nymph and the last adult stage, in less than 2 weeks. They are also able to survive for up to 9 months in the environment without feeding on a host.

Solution

ENTOPHAGEx® (Stratiolaelaps scimitus, Strain XMpigi)

Stratiolaelaps scimitus is a small (0.5 mm) light brown mite which, as a natural predator, is used by poultry farmers for biological control of the red Poultry Mite and the Grain Mite. Females lay eggs in the soil which hatch into nymphs in 1 to 2 days. Nymphs develop into adults in 5 to 6 days. The lifecycle takes approximately 7 to 11 days.

Mode of Action

The mites are a natural enemy of the red poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae). It is a biological weapon provided by Mother Nature. Both nymphs and adults feed on other small insects pests, consuming up to 5 preys per day. Both males and females are present, but males are smaller and rarely seen. When the primary food source (the poultry mite) is all eaten, the predator mite will starve and die. The predators are safe for the birds, endemic (not a new species in the tropical environment), easily adjust to the chicken house climate, and are self-limiting.

Environmental Conditions

Predator prefers humid and moist soil/media conditions but it must not be too wet, they prefer rich organic matter with an open structure and temperature ranges of between 15-30° c.

Benefits

  • Reduced operational costs as the solution is cheaper than chemical alternatives.
Ticks

Ticks are more than just a pest that irritates a cat or a dog. They can cause terrible illness, transfer blood borne disease and in some cases, cause paralysis and even death. Once identified, it’s important to get these blood-suckers off quickly but calmly to prevent further infection.

About: Ticks are external, temporary and obligate parasites which depend on blood to live. Hot and humid climates favor their survival, while the low temperatures inhibit their development. Ticks belong to two main families, Ixodidae and Argasidae. The most important is the Ixodidae, also called hard ticks, due to the presence of a rigid chitinous shield, which covers the entire dorsal surface of the adult male. In the adult female and in the larva and the nymph it extends only by a small area, which allows the abdomen to swell after feeding. The other family is the Argasidae or soft ticks, so called because they lack of a shield. There is a third family (Nuttalliellidae) to which only one species belongs.

Ticks are one of the biggest public health and veterinary problems in the world. These ectoparasites can impact the health of the animals, either directly by the effect of their bites or by the infectious agents they transmit, which include viruses, bacteria, rickettsiae and protozoa.

Damage, harm and economic impact

  • Massive infestations of ticks can cause anemia, as a result of blood loss. Each time a tick bites its host to feed it causes stress and weakens its immune response.
  • Sites bitten by ticks cause lesions that may predispose to localized dermatitis, secondary bacterial infections, or invasion by flies (miasis) that are attracted to bloody areas [6]. Certain ticks contain paralyzing toxins in their saliva (for example Dermacentor andersoni, Ixodes rubicundus, I. holocyclus) that can even cause the death of affected animals.
  • Tick bites and subsequent itching are certainly irritating for pets which react with intense scratching and stress. In severe cases scratching can cause wounds that become infected.

Solution: Neem, ENTOPHAGEX20® (CFU 9*10(9) (Isaria) Entophage Super® (CFU 9*10(9) (Metarhizium)

Application: As advised by the Customer Care Officer.

Flourish®

An organic fertilizer produced using worms of the black soldier fly and mixed with Trichoderma.
Bio control agent: Trichoderma Koningiopsis, Bacillus Subtilis

Category: Nutrition
Target challenge: Soil amendment, enhanced crop development
Crop: Cereals, Flowers, Forestry, Coffee, Fruits, Vegetables

About: Flourish ® is an organic fertilizer produced using worms belonging to the Black Soldier Fly. Flourish® is used for soil amendment, as a fertilizer and especially as a component of propagation media. It is full of beneficial micro-organisms and is essential in replenishing and enhancing biodiversity in both production substrate and soil. It is also used for protection against fungal and bacterial diseases.

Application: Flourish® is applied to the soil by incorporation, as a soil amendment and propagation media and by both soil and foliar as a fertilizer. Foliar application will require a solution of water that has been run through Flourish and collected.

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